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22nd World Conference onLiquid Biopsy & Biomarkers , will be organized around the theme “Accelerating researches in Liquid Biopsy & Biomarkers”
Liquid biopsy Biomarker 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Liquid biopsy Biomarker 2018
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Oncology depends on diagnostic tools like biopsy or removal of bits of the tumor tissue and examination. A team of oncologists who specialize in different areas of oncology monitors and provides treatment to the cancer patient. This approach is helpful because cancer treatment frequently involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. The oncologist is also responsible for symptomatic or palliative care in patients with terminal malignancies. Radiation oncology covers the integration of radiation therapy into multimodal treatment approaches. Japan is having the largest share in total Asia Pacific cancer drug market due to the high prevalence of cancer in the Japanese population. Lung cancer is the major cause of death in the Japanese population. The total healthcare expenditure of Japan was $495 billion in 2013. Global cancer drugs market by therapeutic modalities is segmented into, chemotherapy, Targeted therapy, Immunotherapy, Hormonal therapy and others. Global Oncology Market is expected to reach a value of $111.9 billion by 2020, registering a CAGR of 7.1% during the forecast period 2014 to 2020.
- Track 1-1Surgical Oncology
- Track 1-2Clinical Oncology
- Track 1-3Cytopathology
- Track 1-4Dermatopathology
- Track 1-5Histopathology
The complete evaluation of a patient usually requires a thorough history and physical examination along with diagnostic testing. There is no single imaging test that can accurately diagnose cancer. MRI is a diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of radio frequencies, large magnet, and a computer to produce detailed images of structures and organs within the body. A lymphangiogram is an imaging study that can detect cancer cells or abnormalities in the lymphatic system and structures. It involves a dye being injected into the lymph system. Additionally, genomic DNA alterations, circulating viral DNA or RNA, various mutations such as p16, KRAS, and/or APC either in blood, serum or circulating cancer cells in blood samples have been evaluated to allow the early diagnosis of cancer patients. In addition to liquid biopsy, there are several other novels and promising non-invasive diagnostics being developed for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. NCI researchers showed that an image-guided biopsy for the detection of prostate cancer did a better job of identifying men with the high-risk disease than standard biopsy, while also reducing the detection of low-risk disease that may not need treatment. In recent years, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved tests called companion diagnostics to help identify candidates for certain treatments.
- Track 2-1Diagnostic Imaging
- Track 2-2Endoscopic Exams
- Track 2-3Nuclear Medicine Scans
- Track 2-4Genetic Tests
- Track 2-5Laboratory Tests
Most diagnostic biopsies are small, nondescript bits of tissue, so the gross description is useful for identification of the origin of the tissue. In some cases, a small tissue sample can be removed with a needle while others may surgically remove a suspicious nodule or lump. Mostly, when the lump is likely to be filled with fluid, a fine needle aspiration is preferred. For internal organs, this is achieved with the help of imaging techniques such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), ultrasound, or computed tomography scans. Imaging tests may be performed to determine if a nodule is benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).if the disease is at an advanced stage or if the organ is difficult to access, such as the prostate gland Multiple biopsies may be needed. If cancer is found, the tissue sample can be used to determine the type of tumor and extent to which it has spread through the tissue. Information acquired from a single biopsy provides a spatially and temporally limited snap-shot of a tumor and might fail to reflect its heterogeneity.
- Track 3-1Mass Spectrometry in Tissue Biopsy
- Track 3-2Image-Guided Biopsy for the Detection of Prostate Cancer
- Track 3-3Needle Biopsy
- Track 3-4Surgical Biopsy
- Track 3-5Endoscopic Biopsy
- Track 3-6Optical Biopsy
The Image Guided Automated Robot (IGAR) can be used for doing a biopsy of a suspicious lesion; if clinically appropriate it can be followed by ablation of biopsy site margins. IGAR works in combination with a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner which helps doctors to see the potentially harmful mass in the breast. IGAR has removed most of the “manual” aspects of the procedure and reduced user-dependence and training level required. In the lumpectomy, BioZorb marker device identifies the location of the tumor in a fixed, 3D manner from where it was removed, helping the radiation oncologists more reliably determine where to aim the radiation in follow-up treatments. Most commonly used biopsies on the breast area Core-needle biopsy and surgical biopsy. The doctor may choose to conduct a fine-needle aspiration (FNA) if the lump is easily accessible or if the doctor suspects that it may be a fluid-filled cystic lump. If a woman has a family history of breast cancer then probably she is with ‘high-risk factors‘, in such cases she can be biopsied with BI-RADS category 3 mammograms. Overall, when a biopsy is requested, the rate of breast cancer diagnosis is about 30%.
- Track 4-1Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy
- Track 4-2Excisional Biopsy
- Track 4-3Incisional Biopsy
- Track 4-4Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping and Biopsy
- Track 4-5Open Biopsy
In the non-invasive method for detecting genetic alterations in tumors, analysis of cell-free tumor DNA (cfDNA) in plasma plays important role in improving cancer diagnosis, monitoring, and drug development. Cancer is associated with mutated genes, and analysis of tumor-linked genetic alterations is increasingly used for diagnostic, prognostic and treatment purposes. Liquid biopsies have the ability to pair tests on circulating tumor cells with genomic tests thus it became more clinically useful in recent years. The researchers are looking into whether clusters of Circulating Tumor Cells(CTCs) are correlated with other disease markers measured via blood test, like prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and Chromogranin A (CgA), to determine if they’re linked with more aggressive cancer. This ctDNA test for blood cancer provides a much more comprehensive picture of how a patient is responding to their treatment. It allows real-time evaluation of metastasis and helps in the monitoring of the actual treatment response. Whether liquid biopsies will be cost-effective is unknown. Guardant’s test costs $5,400 (U.S.); some insurers cover it for certain types of patients.
- Track 5-1Tumor-Educated Platelets (TEPs)
- Track 5-2Circulating Tumor DNA(ctDNA)
- Track 5-3Liquid Biopsy in Neurovascular Inflammation
- Track 5-4Urine Tests for Early Spotting of Bladder Cancer Instead of Cystoscopy
- Track 5-5Sensitivity of Liquid Biopsy
Metastatic cancer cells release DNA fragments into the bloodstream. Currently, blood-based cancer testing involves the assessment of biomarkers, most commonly cell-free DNA, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) or exosomes. Many studies have proved that the amount of circulating tumor DNA is correlated with progression of the cancer process and furthermore the capture of ctDNA scales across many types of cancer. Cell-free RNA (cfRNA) fragments, methylated ctDNA also acts as the prognostic and predictive markers of cancer that are at an earlier stage of development. Certain tumor-associated miRNAs were expressed by cancer-related regions, exhibiting DNA amplification, deletion or translocation during tumor growth. Currently, several methods have emerged to examine circulating miRNA levels including microarrays, RT-qPCR and NGS. Massive parallel sequencing (MPS) is current and promising technology for miRNA biomarker discovery.
- Track 6-1Circulating RNAs (miRNA, lncRNAs, and mRNAs) & Proteins and Peptides as emerging Biomarkers
- Track 6-2Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs)
- Track 6-3Cell-Free DNA (cfDNA)
- Track 6-4Cell-free DNA Clinical Applications
- Track 6-5Integrity of Cell-free DNA
Cancer biomarkers, particularly those associated with genetic mutations or epigenetic alterations offer a quantitative way to determine when individuals are predisposed to particular types of cancers. Genetics, proteomics, genomics, many non-invasive imaging techniques and other technologies are used in the measurement of several biomarkers. DNA (germline or somatic), RNA, proteins, peptides, hormones, metabolites, and even biological processes such as apoptosis, angiogenesis or proliferation can act as cancer biomarkers. Biomarkers can be detected in the circulation (serum, whole blood, or plasma) or in secretions (urine, stools, sputum or nipple discharge) or in other human biological fluids thus easily assessed noninvasively and serially, or can be tissue-derived. Cancer cells release many proteins and other macromolecules into the extracellular fluid through secretion that can also serve as biomarkers. Some of these products can end up in the bloodstream and hence serve as potential serum biomarkers. Enhanced cell proliferation is important hallmarks of cancer, which is easy to identify using a number of biochemical, histological, and flow cytometric analysis. Current image-based tests such as CT and MRI for monitoring tumor status are highly costly thus biomarkers have the potential of providing significant cost reduction in patient care.
- Track 7-1Predictive and Prognostic Biomarkers
- Track 7-2Genetic Biomarkers
- Track 7-3Clinical Biomarkers
- Track 7-4Imaging Biomarkers
- Track 7-5Molecular Biomarkers
- Track 7-6Colorectal Cancer Biomarkers
Imaging tests (e.g., X-rays, CT, MRI, PET scans, mammography or ultrasound) can identify masses, but they cannot find microscopic metastases nor characterize a solid tumor’s cellular composition. One of the biggest technical challenges to overcome in the analysis of cfDNA is the issue of low-frequency mutant alleles since ctDNA levels which vary greatly among patients and can reach as low as 0.01% of the total cfDNA in patients with early-stage disease. Somatic mutation profiling can be performed by quantitative or digital PCR. Digital PCR can be used to detect, ctDNA in greater than 75 percent of patients with advanced cancers and in 48–73 percent of patients with localized tumors. Using PARE (Personalized Analysis of Rearranged Ends) proves helpful in detection of specific structural chromosomal rearrangements. Using Whole-exome sequencing analysis of all protein-coding genes; copy number alterations can be done. The comprehensive RNA analyses to establish landscapes of cell-free RNA transcriptomes either by microarrays or by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is relatively novel. These technologies are promising as they can provide insights into the temporal dynamics of plasma mRNA.
- Track 8-1Gene-Amplification and Sequencing Technologies
- Track 8-2BEAMing Digital PCR (Beads, Emulsions, Amplification and Magnetics)
- Track 8-3Application of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Semiconductors in Liquid Biopsy
- Track 8-4Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)
The abnormalities in cancer cells usually result from mutations in protein-encoding genes that regulate cell division. Tumor cell starts its growth in tumor microenvironment which includes blood cell, fibroblasts, immune cells, lymphocytes etc. Symptoms of different cancers are depending upon the location of the tumor. More problems arise if cells don't repair damage to their genes properly. New gene faults, or mutations, can make the cancer cells grow faster, spread to other parts of the body, or become resistant to treatment. The p53 gene—named for the molecular mass of its protein product—may be the most important gene in human cancer. It turns out the cancer cells instruct fibroblasts to secrete exosomes - a tiny fluid-filled sac that in this case contain special genetic material that makes them look like viruses. Mutations in the p53 Gene allows cancer cells to survive and proliferate despite DNA damage.
- Track 9-1Cell Death Resistance
- Track 9-2Carcinogenesis
- Track 9-3Mutagenesis
- Track 9-4Sustaining Proliferative Signaling
- Track 9-5Tumor Suppressor Genes
Only a small number of the approximately 35,000 genes in the human genome have been associated with cancer. In genetic testing, a simple blood test may be used to get a more precise estimate of cancer risk. In some cases, genetic testing can be done on stored tissue samples from deceased relatives. In recent years, scientists have discovered a number of mutations that can contribute to a person’s risk of developing certain cancers, ovarian, including breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer, as well as some other, less common cancer types. The malfunctioning genes are broadly classified into three groups, proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressors and DNA repair genes. Characteristic errors of DNA replication known as microsatellite instability (MSI) are the hallmark of colorectal tumors in HNPCC. People who carry hereditary mutations do not necessarily get cancer, but their risk of developing the disease at some point during their lifetime is higher than average. The most common type of inherited breast cancer is hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC). HBOC is caused by mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Researchers are hoping to identify specific epigenetic profiles of various types and subtypes of cancer with the goal of using these profiles as tools to diagnose individuals more specifically and accurately. Epigenetic control of the proto-onco regions and the tumor suppressor sequences by conformational changes in histones play a role in the formation and progression of cancer. Pharmaceuticals that reverse epigenetic changes might have a role in a variety of cancers.
- Track 10-1Epigenetics & p53, Protein
- Track 10-2Genetic Cancer Syndromes
- Track 10-3Cancer Predisposition
- Track 10-4Genome Instability
- Track 10-5Gene Faults Involved in Hereditary Cancers
- Track 10-6Mechanisms and Pathways of Oncogenesis
An approach to cancer care is Precision medicine that allows doctors to select treatments that have most probably to help patients based on a genetic understanding of their disease. Many of the newer drugs, called targeted drugs, damage cancer cells by blocking genes or proteins found in the cancer cells. These treatments work specifically on the cancer cells, thus they cause different side effects and usually damage less number of healthy cells. Molecularly targeted therapy, the treatment consists of drugs designed at the molecular level of the cell to specifically attack and kill only the cancer cells of a specific type of cancer. Most people have had to go with a combination of treatments, such as surgery with chemotherapy or radiation therapy. There are several major classes of anticancer drugs; these include antimetabolites, alkylating agents, natural products, and hormones. Certain anticancer drugs can find the difference between normal tissue cells and cancer cells, the rate at which cancer cells proliferate plays a role in the apparent selectivity of agents. As researchers have learned more about what makes cancer cells different from normal cells, they have developed Monoclonal antibodies mAbs to exploit these differences.
- Track 11-1Anti-Cancer Therapy Efficacy
- Track 11-2Clinical Trials
- Track 11-3Angiogenesis and Angiogenesis Inhibitors to Treat Cancer
- Track 11-4Antimetabolites
- Track 11-5Precision Medicine
- Track 11-6Oncolytic Viruses as a New Class of Therapeutic Agents
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) which belong to the family of serine/threonine, controls the cell cycle transcription and progression. They are also regulating the mRNA processing, the nerve cells differentiation and homeostasis of glucose. Cellular proliferation which is being driven by CDKs and the cyclin partners gets decontrolled in cancer; therefore, cancer acts as a proliferative disorder which targets the cell cycle. So it seems to be a good strategy for new targeted anticancer agents. CDKs activity is related to specific cyclin co-factors and at least 12 separate genetic loci are known to code for the CDKs. Hence, cyclins are considered to be the gears that are changed to aid the transition between cycle phases. Based on whether they control cell cycle progression, CDKs are generally classified into two major groups which include CDK1 to CDK6 or regulate gene transcription by RNAPII that includes CDK 7, CDK8, CDK9 and CDK19. In cancer, increases in level of CDKs are observed. Inhibition of CDKs represents a good strategy for cancer drug development as well as therapy.
In 2017, 1,688,780 new cancer cases and 600,920 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States. For all sites combined, the cancer incidence rate is 20% higher in men than in women, while the cancer death rate is 40% higher. Over the past 3 decades, the 5-year relative survival rate for all cancers combined has increased 20 percentage points among whites and 24 percentage points among blacks. Progress has been most rapid for hematopoietic and lymphoid malignancies due to improvements in treatment protocols, including the discovery of targeted therapies. The overall cancer death rate rose during most of the 20th century, largely driven by rapid increases in lung cancer deaths among men as a consequence of the tobacco epidemic, but has declined by about 1.5% per year since the early 1990s.Cancer incidence and death rates vary considerably among racial and ethnic groups, with rates generally highest among blacks and lowest among Asian/Pacific Islanders (APIs).Cancer is the second most common cause of death among children aged 1 to 14 years in the United States, surpassed only by accidents. In 2018, an estimated 15,270 children (birth to 14 years) will be diagnosed with cancer (excluding benign/borderline malignant brain tumors) and 1,490 will die from the disease.
- Track 13-1Estimated New Cancer Cases
- Track 13-2Mortality, Survival Rates and Trends for Individual Cancer Sites
- Track 13-3Risk Factors
- Track 13-4Cancer Type in the Current Year
- Track 13-5Lifetime Probability of Developing & Dying from Cancer
Tumor cells have a broad spectrum of migration and invasion mechanisms that can be include both individual cell and collective cells-migration strategies. Migratory behaviours of tumor cells can also regulate by the balance of cellular signals for proliferation and survival responses. The ability of malignant tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis has stay in focus of research for many years. Several studies have established the existence of two main patterns of tumor cell invasion such as individual cell migration and collective cell migration by which tumor cells or cancerous cells evade barriers of the extracellular matrix and spread into surrounding cells or tissues. Many cancer therapeutics that are designed to target proteases or adhesion receptors have not shown to be effective in slowing tumor progression in clinical trials because the fact that the cancerous cells can modify and altered their migration mechanisms in response to various intracellular conditions. Numerous neurotransmitter receptors are expressed on the surface of tumor cells, supporting the theory that psychosocial factors are involved in the progression of cancer.
- Track 14-1Individual cell migration
- Track 14-2Collective cell migration
- Track 14-3Amoeboid cell migration
- Track 14-4Patterns of invasion
- Track 14-5Mechanisms of invasion
Many new anti-cancer therapies are assessed on the basis of their capability to shrink tumors, but if the therapies fail to kill the cancer stem cells, the tumor soon grows back (often with a more resistance against the previously used therapy).It has also been suggested that cancer stem cells are more resistant to chemo and radiotherapy than other cells in a tumor. As cancer stem cells form a small proportion of the tumor, this leads to a problem in selecting drugs that act specifically on the stem cells. Current anti-cancer therapies are primarily based on trying to inhibit cancer cell growth, causing cancer cells to die, or a combination of both. Till date, novel antibodies have been created those target antigens on both CSCs and the bulk differentiated tumor cells, which are derived from the CSCs. A new study from researchers observed that the same stem cells and differentiated cells were found in cells with different genetic mutations in these tumors, with stem cells fueling tumor growth in each case. This could mean that targeting these cancer stem cells may help inhibit tumor growth.
- Track 15-1Identification and Targeting of Cancer Stem Cells
- Track 15-2Gastric Cancer Stem Cells
- Track 15-3Tumorigenicity
- Track 15-4Cancer Stem Cell Markers
- Track 15-5Stem Cell Mutation
According to researchers stem cells are naturally attracted to proteins released by tumors. So these cells serve as biological delivery vehicles to cancer tissue, releasing therapeutic payloads directly at the site of malignancy. A stem cell transplant aims to try and cure some types of blood cancer such as leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma. It is also known as peripheral blood stem cell transplant. Stem cells can be used in mini transplants which are also known as reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) transplants. There are clinical trials showing the role of the stem cells in the regeneration of myocardial tissue following myocardial infarction. Researchers are programming human bone marrow stem cells to identify the unique physical properties of cancerous tissue. According to a current report on stem cell research, it’s growing twice as fast as the world average research. Over the last 25 years, there has been an exponential growth in journal articles on stem cells. The market is expected to reach USD 145.8 Million by 2021, growing at a CAGR of 11.0% during the forecast period.
- Track 16-1Autologous & Allogeneic Transplantation
- Track 16-2Stem Cell Differentiation & Cancer
- Track 16-3Umbilical Cord Blood Transplant
- Track 16-4Parent-Child Transplant and Haplotype Mismatched Transplant
- Track 16-5Syngeneic Stem Cell Transplant
The of stem cell engineering is a modern field that goals to generate novel developments in stem cell therapies and diagnostics by manipulating stem cell elements that have been previously difficult to control. Activities that are part of this field range from basic stem cell research to the development of tools, models, enabling technologies, and to advancing the biomanufacturing of stem cell and the creation of stem cell-based products and applications. Stem cell biotechnology is the emerging field to invent regenerative medicine that develops methods to repair, regrow or replace damaged or diseased cells, tissues or organs. Regenerative medicine includes the generation and utilization of tissue engineering, therapeutic stem cells, and the production of artificial organs. Human mesenchymal stem cells have the capability for self-renewal and differentiation into different mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal cell type, useful for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorder, including tissue engineering in orthopaedics and osteogenesis imperfect.
Radiation oncology covers the integration of radiation therapy into multimodal treatment approaches. A variety of imaging techniques such as X-ray radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine including positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used to diagnose cancer in its early stages. Interventional radiology is the performance of (usually minimally invasive) medical procedures with the guidance of imaging technologies. They can sometimes help predict whether a tumor is likely to be cancer. This can help health care providers decide if a biopsy is needed. Molecular imaging enables scientists to understand the molecular pathways inside organisms in a non-invasive manner. Nuclear medicine uses small amounts of radioactive material called radiotracers (typically injected into the bloodstream, inhaled or swallowed) to diagnose and determine the severity of or treat a variety of diseases.
- Track 18-1Brachytherapy
- Track 18-2Stereotactic Radiosurgery
- Track 18-3Image-Guided Radiation Therapy or IGRT
- Track 18-4Proton Therapy
- Track 18-5Radioembolization
Tumor metastases are responsible for approximately 90% of all cancer-related deaths. Although many patients can be cured, in the US and UK, cancer still causes 730,000 deaths every year, and it is second only to cardiovascular disease as a cause of death-metastasis is one of the hallmarks of cancer, distinguishing it from benign tumors. Most cancers can metastasize, although in varying degrees. Basal cell carcinoma for example rarely metastasizes. In Metastasis a complex series of steps takes place in which cancer cells migrate to other parts of the human body via the lymphatic system, therefore the bloodstream, or by direct extension. In Metastasis malignant cells break away from the primary tumor and attach to and degrade proteins that make up the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), which separates the tumor from adjoining tissues. Researchers examining the necessary conditions for cancer metastasis have found that one of the critical situations required is the growth of a new network of blood vessels, called tumor angiogenesis. It has been found that angiogenesis inhibits, therefore, can help in preventing the growth of metastases. Cancer cells affect the bones by interfering with osteoblasts and osteoclasts causing bone metastasis.
- Track 19-1Common Sites of Metastasis
- Track 19-2Metastasis Diagnosis
- Track 19-3Bone metastasis
- Track 19-4Molecular Analysis for Therapy Choice Metastatic lesion (NCI-MATCH)
- Track 19-5Proteins involved in Metastasis
In children, a genetic condition, such as Down syndrome, sometimes increases the risk of cancer. Kids who have had chemotherapy or radiation treatment for cancer are more prone to get cancer again. Familial and genetic factors are identified in 5-15% of childhood cancer cases. In less than 5-10% of cases, there are known environmental exposures and exogenous factors, such as prenatal exposure to X-rays, tobacco, or certain medications. (Childhood) leukemia (32%), brain tumors (18%), and lymphomas (11%) are the most common cancers in children. High-dose chemotherapy followed by a stem cell transplant can treat some types of childhood cancers. Newer types of treatment, such as targeted therapy drugs and immunotherapy, have also been proven in treating some childhood cancers. More than 80% of children with cancer now survive 5 years or more due to major treatment advances in recent decades. Overall, this is a huge increase since the mid-1970s, when the 5-year survival rate was about 58%.
- Track 20-1Leukemia
- Track 20-2Molecular Pathogenesis of malignant Lymphomas
- Track 20-3Bone Cancer: Osteosarcoma & Ewing Sarcoma
- Track 20-4Neuroblastoma
Generally, treatment for patients with brain cancer spinal cord includes surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and/or steroids to treat and prevent swelling. Brain cancer is caused by abnormal cell growth in the tissue of the brain. Astrocytomas are the most common type of brain tumor in children and anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas make up about one-third of brain tumors in adults. Researchers have found that for the tumor's formation, it's-within the main tumor, a particular population of cells, called "glioma stem cells," are Response bits resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and has high recurrence rate following treatment. Doctors couldn’t see glioblastomas, until recently with the drug Gliolan or 5 ALA, which can turn the cancer cells pink has been approved by the FDA. especially in the brain; anti-seizure medication to treat and prevent seizures associated with intracranial pressure; placement of a shunt (to help drain excess fluid in the brain); lumbar puncture/spinal tap (to measure pressure in the spinal cord and brain); bone marrow transplantation; rehabilitation (to regain lost motor skills and muscle strength); and/or antibiotics (to treat and prevent infections).A new drug called CMP3a has been designed which is set to target NEK2 by selectively inhibiting its activity in glioma stem cells. It was able to hinder glioblastoma growth, as the scientists observed both in vitro and in vivo.
- Track 21-1Astrocytoma
- Track 21-2Oligodendrogliomas
- Track 21-3Malignant Glimos
- Track 21-4Pediatric Neuro Oncology
- Track 21-5Glioblastoma Multiforme
The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a biological process during embryogenesis that plays crucial roles in the formation of the body plan and certain pathological conditions such as fibrosis and tumor. EMT also causes disruption of cell-cell interaction, loss of apico-basal polarity, matrix remodeling, increased motility and invasiveness in developing tumor metastasis. The tumor microenvironment plays an essential role in promoting cancer metastasis and may induce the occurrence of EMT in tumor cells. The tumor microenvironment is usually composed of inflammatory and immune cells, stromal, hypoxia, extracellular components including extracellular matrix, as well as soluble factors, that play an important role in facilitating cancer progression and metastasis. Tumor cells undergoing EMT are also known to increase the secretion of specific factorssuch as chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors.
- Track 22-1Inducer of tumor EMT
- Track 22-2Role of Hypoxia and Oxidative Stress in EMT
- Track 22-3Recent evidence for TGF-β importance in EMT
- Track 22-4Potential Effects of IL-8 on the Tumor Microenvironment
- Track 22-5Mathematical Modeling of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition
Oncogenes encode proteins that possess the ability to cause cellular transformation were first described as a retrovirus encoded genes that produces cancer in rodents and birds. A number of the enzymes of protein-tyrosine kinases family (largest family of human enzymes) have been discovered as products of retrovirus-encoded oncogenes. These kinases are broadly classified into two families: the cytosolic nonreceptor family and the transmembrane receptor family. Signal transduction or cell signaling is the transmission of molecular signals from a cell's exterior to its interior which is continued either by the modification of the cell membrane permeability via the movement of ions in or out of the cell or by a series of biochemical changes inside the cell. A cell can operate numerous signals and multiple signal transduction pathways at a time. The activity of many enzymes that is involved in the biochemical pathways of intracellular signal transduction is controlled by the phosphorylation reactions that involved the addition of phosphate groups to the specific amino acid molecule and causes a conformational change in the enzymes, which can either activate or inhibit the enzyme activity. Receptor molecules that initiate biochemical changes detect, amplify, and integrate diverse external signals to generate responses such as changes in gene expression, enzyme activity or ion-channel activity.
- Track 23-1Oncogenic signaling
- Track 23-2Signal Transduction by Protein Tyrosine Kinase Receptors
- Track 23-3Cytokine Receptor Signaling
- Track 23-4Signaling, growth and polarity
- Track 23-5Signaling by Neurotransmitters
Cell metabolism is an essential process that drives all cellular activity of the cell, while the cancer metabolism refers to the alteration in cellular metabolic pathways that are evident in cancer cells compared with normal cell types. Altered cellular metabolism is used by cancers cells as a driving force of malignant formation, cancer cell proliferation and therapy resistance. Oncometabolite is a relatively new term that refers to metabolites help in tumor formation. Altered cell metabolic activity shows anabolic growth during nutrient replete conditions and fortification of redox homeostatic systems to counteract the metabolic effects on tumor suppressor loss, oncogene activation. MYC increase the expression of several gene that support anabolic growth, including enzymes and transporters involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, mitochondrial metabolism, glycolysis and serine metabolism. Cancerous cells have numerous metabolic alteration pathways includes oxidative phosphorylation, aerobic glycolysis and the increased production of biosynthetic intermediates needed for cell proliferation. In normal or healthy cells most glucose molecules are completely burned in to carbon dioxide for energy production in order to establish equilibrium, whereas in cancer cells this balance is shifted in order to produce more intermediate molecules, are used to cell growth and rapid cell division instead to completely oxidize for energy production.
- Track 24-1Glutamine Metabolism
- Track 24-2Metabolic Flexibility
- Track 24-3Aerobic Glycolysis
- Track 24-4Alternative Glucose Metabolism
- Track 24-5Tumor Cell Metabolism in Hypoxic and Normoxic Conditions
Biomaterials are the substances, have some notable impacts in cancer therapy that have been designed or engineered to interact with living systems for a medical purpose. A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves the immunity of body against a particular disease. According to the CDC, many vaccines carry a risk of life-threatening allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis in about one per million children. The vaccination against rotavirus can cause intussusception, a type of bowel blockage that may require hospitalization, in about one per 20,000 babies in the United States. Vaccination and immunization are the biological process by which an organism can fight against a particular disease. Immunotherapy or biological therapy is a type of cancer treatment that improves body's defense system in response to cancer, Scientists, doctors and researchers have performed clinical trials to further progress in the clinical implementation of tumor immunotherapy.
- Track 25-1Combination therapies
- Track 25-2Potential of cancer vaccination
- Track 25-3Biomaterials to modulate immune cell trafficking and activity
- Track 25-4Anticancer immune responses
- Track 25-5Immune checkpoint inhibitors
Alternative medicine treatment can be used instead of standard medical treatments. One example is using a special diet to treat cancer instead of anticancer drugs that are prescribed by an oncologist. Some alternative Medicine therapies have undergone careful evaluation and have been found to be safe and effective. These therapies include a wide variety of botanicals and nutritional products, such as dietary supplements, herbal supplements, and vitamins. Some therapies may interfere with standard treatment or even be harmful. The herb St. John's wort, which some people use for depression, may cause certain anti-cancer drugs not to work as well as they should. By various accounts, from less than 10% to more than 60% of cancer patients have used Alternative Medicine.
- Track 26-1Biological Treatments
- Track 26-2Dietary Supplements and Herbal Remedies
- Track 26-3Oxygen Therapy and Hyperbaric Chambers
- Track 26-4Aromatherapy
- Track 26-5Proteolytic Enzyme Therapy
- Track 26-6Hydrazine Sulfate as a Treatment for Cancer